Paper a federal government under the Articles of confederation

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1. Task:
Define the relationship of the the U.S. Constitution to the following.

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1  
John
Locke:

Had the idea of natural rights to citizens, He gave Thomas
Jefferson the idea to write the declaration of independence which the US
constitution was then built off of.

2  
The
American Revolution:

The American revolution led to the states joining
together to create a federal government under the Articles of confederation
which turned out to be a weak system of government. The Document needed to be
changed and resulted to the constitutional convention and ultimately the US
constitution.

3  
The
Declaration of Independence:

The
foundation of the articles of confederation and the US constitution

4  
The
Articles of Confederation:

Came after the Declaration of Independence. The
Articles of Confederation had a weak central government, we needed a strong
central government which in turn resulted in the Us constitution

5  
Constitutional
Convention of 1787:

Was held to fix the weak central government that was
created by the Articles of Confederation. The constitution that came from the convention
created a strong federal government with more specific powers

6  
Compromises
of the Constitutional Convention:

Three fifths compromise meant that slaves would be
counted as 3/5 of a person for purpose of population size.

The great compromise determined the legislative structure
and representation that each state would have under the US Constitution

The Commerce Compromise was between northern states
and southern states during the constitutional convention as to how the federal
government could regulate commerce. It imposed tax on imported goods from
foreign countries, while protecting exports from any taxation.

The slave trade compromise was basically between the
norther and southern states. Congress could not prohibit slave trade until 1808
but imported slaves could be taxed.

The electoral college is a compromise between
election of the president by a vote in congress and election of the president by
popular vote of its citizens.

7  
The
Federalist Papers and Ratification:

The Federalist papers tried to convince the people
that the constitution was the best options. Created to sell the states on the
idea of ratifying the new constitution.

 

2. Task: Using the chart as a guide, summarize
the theory behind each system.

Unitary Government: A government that gives all key powers to the national of
central government. No power is give to individual states.

Example: China, United Kingdom

Federal Government: A Federal government is a little bit of both unitary and
Confederate. Power lies in the hands of a strong central government. States and
or Provinces are given some of their own self-ruling.

Examples: United States, Australia, Federal
Republic of Germany. 

Confederate Government: A loose union of independent states. A way to organize a
nation so that the national government is weak and most power are in the hands
of the states.

Example: Soviet Union

 

3. Task: Using the chart as a
guide, describe how each branch checks the other.

Separation of powers were created to keep
powers separated. The power is rested with the people and we have natural
rights and our governments job is to keep those rights safe. Hence the
separation of power and checks and balances to make sure that our rights are
balanced and not too much power is given to one branch.

Article I is
written about the Legislative branch. The Legislative branch is in charge of
making and passing laws. The Legislative branch includes Congress which is made
up of a Bi-Cameral legislature. It includes the US Senate and the House of
Representatives. The first checks and balance is inside the Legislative branch.
Both bodies must write the same law before they can pass a law. Congress has an
oversight of the presidency, Between Congress and the President, Congress has
impeachment power, which is broken up between the House of Representative which
investigates the president and the Senate who then determines if he can be
impeached. Congress can override a veto by the president by having 2/3 votes to
override it. The president also must get approval from congress to add someone
to the government or supreme court nominees. The president also needs approval
from congress in order to sign treaties.

Article II talks
about the Executive branch. The Executive branch includes the president. The
president enforces the laws however he follows the congressional law. The
President nominates federal judges which must go through senate first. The
President is also the Commander in chief, which is head of the military, he is
in charge of making military decisions, he cannot declare war without the
approval of congress. The president is also reliant on congress in regards to
military power because they pass funding laws. He is the figure head of the
country he signs and veto’s legislation however legislation can veto the
presidents veto he signs The president also has pardon powers which means he
can get anyone he wants out of jail.

Article III involves
the Judiciary branch whose job is to interpret the constitution. They nominate
the president only after they have been approved by the senate. They are
appointed for a lifetime.  There is currently nine members of the supreme
court, they hear appeals and follow judicial review. Which is having the
ability to cipher through presidential actions and laws passed by government to
see if they are obeying the constitution.

4. Task: Summarize the following articles and
sections of the U.S. Constitution.

Article I, Sections 1-10

Article I

Section 1: The Legislature 

The legislature makes laws. It consists of two
parts of congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Section 2: House of Representatives

Under a direct Democracy the House of
representatives will be directly elected by the people of those states. The
term length is two years with a reelection every two years. To be elected you
must be 25 years old and a citizen of the united states for at least 7 years.
The house of representatives has the power of impeachment. The speaker of the
house is next in line for presidency 

Section 3: Senate 

To be elected not senate you must be at least
30 years old and a citizen of the united state for at least 9 years. The term
length is 6 years with e reelection every 6 years. The vice president is
president of senate however has not voting power. The senate can try
impeachment with 2/3 vote approval. There is only one vote per senator and the
president pro-tempore acts if the VP is absent

Section 4: Meetings and elections

Elections run by states. Congress Regulates
elections for Senators and Representatives. Congress meets at least once a
year.

Section 5: Rules and Procedures

The House and Senate ultimately decide the
outcome of elections. They can expel and member with 2/3 supermajority vote.
Congress has the power to set its own rules. And Quorums are mandatory to
conduct business in congress. 

Section 6: Privileges and Restrictions

Anything said in congress cannot be criminally
prosecuted. You cannot be arrested traveling to and from congress. Congress
will be paid by the US government. Their salaries are set by laws and don’t get
paid that amount unless they a re reelected. Congressmen may not have any other
federal appointments meaning they cannot have any other government job

Section 7: Bills and Laws

Revenue bills must originate in the house, the
senate may amend bills, the house of representatives and senate must both write
a la before it can be sent to the president. Congress can override president
veto by 2/3 vote n each house. If the president does not sign a bill it
automatically becomes a law within 10 days. 

Section 8: Powers of Congress 

These are powers that were delegated to the
legislative branch by the founding fathers. The legislative branch has the
power to

-Raise taxes to provide for the common defense
and general welfare

-Run a debt

-Regulate foreign and Native American and
interstate commerce

-Naturalization and Immigration Policy

-coin cash

-deals with counterfeiting

-creates and regulates post offices

-promote science and arts through patent and
copyright laws

-creates inferior courts to the supreme court
such as federal courts

-declares war

-raise and supports the army and navy

-regulates national guard –calls up and
activates the national guard

-governs the capital

*Runs the Elastic Clause

Congress shall have the power to make all laws
necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foreign powers and all
other powers vested by the constitution.

Section 9: Limits on congress 

Congress regulates slave trade

Habeas Corpus- cannot suspend congress

No bills of attained or expost facto laws

No direct taxes unless taxes are proportional
to the state

Cannot pass laws that favor certain parts of
the country

No nobility or titles granted to us leaders

Section 10: Limiting powers of state

Statas cannot enter treaties from alliances

Cannot coin money

Cannot declare war

Cannot pass or collect taxes on imports or
exports

 

Article II, Sections1-4

Article II

Section 1: 

Establishes the office of the president

Electoral College Qualifications

Set Salary

Section 2: Powers
and titles of the president

Section 3: Duties
of the president

Section 4: Impeachment

 

Article III, Sections 1,2,3 

Article III

Section 1: Judicial Power

Establishes supreme court, judge terms for
life.

Section 2:

Kinds of cases, trial by jury in criminal
court.

Judicial Review- Allow supreme court to hear,
has the right of jury trial, all criminal trials have jury trial unless in case
of impeachment

Section 3: Treason

You cannot raise war against the United states

Cannot give aid and comfort to the enemy

You will be convicted if you have two
witnesses against you or person contest guilty.

Cannot punish blood relatives or family.

5. Task: Describe the relevancy of public
opinion, interest groups and political parties to the U.S. political system.

 

Because the United states is a Democracy based
off popular vote these groups are important to the united states political
system.

 

Interest groups are groups of people who share
common ideas or concerns. They try to influence government policies that impact
those concerns. They do thing in a number of different ways. They have
lobbyist, hold rallies, donate to politicians, and spread awareness and
opinions through social media. There goal is to protect the economic well being
of their clients or members.

 

Political Parties serve four key functions in
the American political system. They select candidates, mobilize voters,
facilitate governance, and monitor the opposing party.

 

Public opinion is the citizens view on
politicos and government actions. Its important to the united states political
system because public opinions are what drives the political opinions being
made. It helps explain behaviors of individuals and gives reasons for specific
policy outcomes

6. Task: Describe what happens prior, during
and after the events listed below. Suggest one improvement.

1.    Primary and Caucuses

During the Primary and the Caucuses is where
nominations for each party is taken place, here is where we vote and pick for a
candidate. The four major parties are the Democratic and Republican parties and
we also have the green and liberatarian party. In a primary election you have
open and closed primaries. On W.W Norton & Company, Inc. primary elections
are when  ” the states allocate delegates proportionately to the
percentage of the vote won by the candidate—this is mandated by the Democratic
Party and winner-take-all models are being phased out by the Republican
Party. ” and Caucuses elections are “Caucuses are closed meetings in which
those registered as official party members can vote to select delegates who are
“pledged” to support one candidate at the convention. In order to be successful
in caucus states, candidates must have a committed group of followers willing
to attend and vote in the caucuses, wherever they are held in the state.”

A running mate is also chosen right before the
National Convention.

 

2.    National Conventions

Nominees chose when and where they want their
convention to take place way before hand. They typically try to post pone the
convention as late as possible so that they could campaign and gain the support
for their voters. The purpose of these conevntions are to talk about how they feel
the last four years have been and voice their message and visions on the
current political and economical climate are.

3.    General Elections

The general election typicall consist of of
two parts the electoral college and the fall campaign. The fall campaign is
where they try to further their message and rely on polls and focus groups to
help them. They need to be careful about timing and tings being said. This is
where hey need to focus on their stance nd not change opinions so much. This is
also the time where we have candidate debates.

4.    Electoral College

The Leectoral college currently consist of 587
seats and that’s is broken up between states based on the population. The
winnign candidate is based on majority voet of the electoral college. Typically
the goal for the candidate is 270 electoral votes to win.

I would definitely improve how much of the
peoples vote actually counted towards the election rather than the electoral
college getting the final decision. 

7.) Task: We learned about the many rights and
responsibilities of U.S. citizens. Describe 5 rights and 5 responsibilities
important to you.

Its important to stay informed of the issues
affecting your community because it gives a sense of protection and security.
You are aware of what’s going on around you and the world and you you can
protect yourself and others. You can express your onions on current issues and
possible make a change or help promote or defend those issues.

Its important to respect the rights, beliefs,
and opinions of others because you can avoid problems like those that we face
today. People today are being prejudice to one another with others race,
opinions, religions and backgrounds. This causes riots, deaths, unnecessary
protest and disputes all because we can’t accept that people are different. In
a country that’s made up of many different races, religions, and ethnicity’s I
think its important that we respect and value the opinions of others so we can
work as a team to better our country.

Its important to have Freedom to express
yourself, because we live in a free country. We are not under communist
control. We are not forced to live, act, or speak a certain way. We live in a
free country which means we should have our own free opinions.

Its important to Respect and obey federal,
state, and local laws it protects us. These laws are designed to keep us safe
and have order in our communities. Without order and guidance who knows how the
country would act with fear of prosecution

I believe its important
to have the Right to vote in elections for public officials because we are a
democracy. We are entitled to our opinions and our own thoughts. We should
choose who we believe is best fit to represent us.

 

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