p works based on link availability estimation. The nodes

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As stated by (Maihofer,
2004) the goal
of all protocols are to enable transmission of a packet to all nodes
within a geographic region. For instance, multicast enables a packet
to be sent to an arbitrary group of nodes, and geocast is a subclass
of multicast and can be implemented with a multicast service by
defining the multicast group to be a certain geographic region. The
nodes use the principle of routing data packet from one source to all
nodes belonging to destination. The objective of geo-cast routing is
to deliver packets from source node to all other nodes within a
specified geographical region, also called Zone of Relevance (Chawla,
2014). The
reference zone of forwarding is used to hold the message forwarding
until it reaches zone of relevance through flooding. Few of the
protocols are DG-CASTOR and DRG.

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Direction-based geocast
routing protocol (DG-CASTOR):

In vehicular ad hoc network
the DG-CASTOR protocol works based on link availability estimation.
The nodes in the network communicate with other nodes when the nodes
have the same ability to communicate with the sender during a period
of time. In this protocol, Rendezvous region represents the Geocast
routing area and the Rendezvous group can communicate between the
source and the neighbours’ nodes in which the link availability was
estimated (Chawla,
2014). The goal
of this protocol is to route data packets through the nearest nodes
to source node that have the greatest chance to communicate with the
source considering their communication ability and the distance
between their locations
(Gulliver, 2015).

Distributed robust geocast
routing protocol (DRG)

In VANET the DRG routing
protocol works based on the forwarding algorithm on the principles of
select and relays scheme. Each node receiving a geocast message to
checks the message relevance based on its location. Two basic
approaches were used as the zone of relevance (ZOR) to represent the
set of geographic criteria a node must satisfy principles criteria in
order for the geocast message to be relevant to that node, while the
zone of forwarding (ZOF) is the set of geographic criteria a node
must satisfy in order to forward a geocast message (Harshvardhan
P. Joshi, 2006).
If the node that belongs to ZOR reads the message then it will
forwards the message that belongs to ZOF range else the packet will
not be sent to destination. DRG protocol is based on flooding
technique, hence, this can produce significant network overhead
(Gulliver,
2015).

Cluster Based Routing
Protocols

Cluster Based Routing
Protocols divides the network into small groups called clusters, the
nodes having the same characteristics such as moving with same
velocity in the network can form a cluster and share information.
The communication among the clusters occurs via pre-selected nodes
called Cluster Heads (CHs). CHs are responsible for coordinating the
cluster members; the CH finds the destination route; by propagating
routing overhead which is proportional to the number of the clusters
instead of the number of nodes. The objectives of using clusters are
to minimize the control overhead, and increase the network
scalability
(Ahmad Abuashour, 2016).
Few routing protocols are CBDRP and CBLTR.

Cluster Based directional
Routing protocol (CBDRP)-

In this protocol, vehicles
with the same direction of movement are divided in to several
clusters and one header in each cluster is selected, the source
vehicle sends the message to the header of its own cluster during
data transmission, the header forwards the message to the cluster
header with the same destination, at the ends, the destination header
hands the message to the destination. The path is maintained in this
approach only if there is one header in an intermediate cluster.
However, only the header needs to find the destination path at the
sometime, this means the routing overhead is relative to the number
of clusters in the network
(Tao Song, 2010)

Cluster-Based Life-Time
Routing (CBLTR)

Cluster-Based Life-Time
Routing (CBLTR) protocol as described by (Ahmad
Abuashour, 2016)
divides the network segment into multiple stationary clusters. In
each cluster, most suitable CH candidate is chosen based on CHs
neighbours and destination location. This will eliminate the route
discovery process by dividing the network into multiple clusters. The
aims are to increase the route stability and average throughput, as
well as reduce the number of re-selection process for new CHs.

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