Human non-linguistic vocal signals with specific communicative meanings”. The

Human beings
are social in their nature. They live by interacting between each other. Their
interaction includes in verbal and nonverbal communication. People use language
as a verbal mean to communicate. On the other hand, Nonverbal communications
consist of some features according to Laver “gesture, facial expression,
eye-contact and gaze-direction, body orientation, posture, proximity, physical
contact, and the audible features of tone of voice and non-linguistic vocal
signals with specific communicative meanings”. The purpose from the nonverbal
communication is to support the massage by signals, thoughts, body language and
behaviors (Barmaki, 2014). Some nonverbal
communication forms such as smiling, crying and pointing (Burgoon, Guerrero and
Floyd, 2016).The difference between our body language happened because
Nonverbal communication gets influenced by sociocultural, developmental and
personal levels (Mayo & Henley 2012). Therefore, body language is an effective
means of communication that helps to support the message and increase people’s
relationship.

The first argument is that people use body language to support
their message. For example, people sometimes node their heads after answering
yes to support their approval. Sometimes nonverbal communications provide
better understanding than spoken language, especially when we want to show our
feelings to others. For example, all I need is a hug to show my mother that I
love her or lean forward and look directly to my brother’s face to show that I
am interested in the presented topic. Also, smile can explain our feeling more
than saying it in words (Bambaeeroo & Shokrpour, 2017). According to,
research indicates that over 70% of messages sent by individuals are conveyed
non-verbally (Burgoon, Guerrero and Floyd, 2016).
Teachers usually use different nonverbal signals to support the presented
information and to keep students attracted such as the change in the voice tone
and moving hands. According to Bambaeeroo & Shokrpour (2017) to have a good
communication skill is important to be good teachers and most troubled
classrooms happens because of the limited communication. Students can read the
teacher’s body language and feels his excitement or if he is bored and wanting
to finish quickly (Bambaeeroo & Shokrpour, 2017). Therefore, As Barmaki, 2014 mentioned, it is important for
teachers to know how to send clear signals to the students during the
class.  

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The second argument is that nonverbal
communication is important to serve the human being.  The development
from Infant to adulthood. They all depend on body language to communicate.
Especially Infants who don’t have other means to communicate except crying,
cooing, singing and holding (Burgoon, Guerrero and Floyd, 2016). Infants can
sense nonverbal signals of positive emotion from others and respond to it. For
example, they will laugh as a reaction to playful physical games (Sauter, 2017). Unlike infant, when people get
older they depend more on complex body language and verbal language as
(Burgoon, Guerrero and Floyd, 2016) said. The developmental change occur gender
interaction. Nonverbal communication differs between men and women and the
difference become clear when it is between a male and female than two females.
According to Mehrabian (1972), females more likely to have eye contact between
themselves more than males, while, eye contact become less preferred between
men and women especially when it is unpreferred. In Arabian culture separation
between women and men is favored. Nonverbal communication such as eye contact
is limited between males and females. 

In counter argument, not all massages that we understand from
nonverbal communication is correct. Some feelings such as happiness is easy to
recognize by most of the people by reading the facial expression only (Burgoon,
Guerrero and Floyd, 2016). The confusion begins when it comes to read the
negative emotions like anger, fear, and disgust by looking to the face only
(Custrini & Feldman, 1989; Horatcsu& Ekinci, 1992; March et al., 2005;
Zuckerman, Lipets, Koivumaki, & Rosenthal, 1975) as cited by Burgoon,
Guerrero and Floyd (2016). Some emotions are really similar and not easy to recognize
by the facial expression such as fear and nervousness, love with sadness or
sympathy, pride with happiness, surprise with happiness, anger with disrespect,
or interest it pride or happiness (Apple & Hecht, 1982; Banse &
Scherer, 1994) as cited by Burgoon, Guerrero and Floyd (2016). Also, depending
on age getting the correct observation, the older the better people become in
decoding (Burgoon, Guerrero and Floyd, 2016). As a result, young people may
misunderstand the massage received from other through their nonverbal
communication.

The second counter argument is that nonverbal communication could
cause serious problem between people from different cultures. They might
misunderstand the intention of each other’s. For example, people from North
America can misunderstand and feel worried and violated toward Arab’s closeness
and expressiveness while, the distancing style in the North American
interaction may leave Arabs with uncomfortable feelings by questioning their
intention (Gudykunst & Mody, 2002). This difficulty was happened because of
certain idea that leads both parties to explain then feel uncomfortable toward
each other’s (Mehrabian,1972). Another example, in Asian culture, being
emotional means that you lack self-control. On contrary, Arabs tend to be
overly expressive by showing the effect of correctness, image over meaning and
form over function(Mehrabian,1972). on the other hand, people should take their
cautious when using gestures even if it’s a clear and agreed on the meaning of
it (emblems) by most of the people still some who come from different culture
may find it offensive. They may use the same body gestures but to support
different meaning. For example, German used to use
index and middle fingers in a “V” shape to express victory , while people from
Britain will feel offended if you use index and middle fingers with
palm-facing-in , because it means “up yours” in their culture (Pease & Pease,
2004).The story behind this signal in the British history behind using this
sign is that people used to cut the archer two fingers to prevent him from
shooting his bow and arrow, so holding up the two fingers up is to annoy the
enemies(Pease & Pease, 2004). Another negativity of nonverbal communication
is that most people believe in body language more than verbal language itself. sadly,
nonverbal communication can play as deception tools as well as telling truth
(Manusov & Patterson, 2006). This would make being tricked so easily by
others if you are not a good translator of body gestures or too young to recognize
the deception.

In conclusion, nonverbal communication has negative and positive
sides. However, nonverbal communication it is very important because this is
the only way to communicate with infant. Our nonverbal communication changed
based on three levels developmental, personal and sociocultural. It takes many
shapes and present different information, some of them will support the truth
where the others meant to deceive others. People should understand and respect
the differences between each other’s, because there are other cultures with
different ways of communications. They also, should understand that the nature
of men and women could affect their body language and their ways of
communication.      

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