Contents:TitlePageTitle example, redeveloping brownfield sites, designating national parks, protecting

Contents:TitlePageTitle Page1Contents2Introduction3Legislation4Control6Design and Specification8Management10Fit for Purpose Techniques12Comparison of Techniques17Letter19Appendices21Bibliography21Introduction:For thousands of years, natural resources of the world have been exploited by humans. Resources such as gas, coal, oil and gypsum are consumed for the making of construction materials. Global warming is swelling at an distressing rate due to the burning of fossil fuels. Upon discovering this unit, it has become very clear there are strong measures to upsurge sustainable construction in order to help diminish factors contributing towards global warming. These measures include;LegislationControlDesign and SpecManagementThese all play a crucial part in protecting our environment against human error, pollutants and global pollution. Recently, measurements have been implemented to correspond with the above factors. For example, redeveloping brownfield sites, designating national parks, protecting greenbelt areas as well as efficient use of recycling techniques. The current emphasis is on the use of sustainable construction materials/processes enabling homes to produce low carbon emissions whilst being energy efficient. This will consequently reduce the reliance on oil-based resources. In my opinion, controls such as legislation are essential nowadays for the construction industry.  I consider sustainability to be one of the most significant areas under construction and I think it is an area that should be deeply considered by any developer. Even buying locally sourced materials will save transport costs and contribute towards saving the natural environment.Legislation:The construction industry is highly regulated with complex legislation. It covers a broad variety of subjects including; health & safety, taxation, conservation, energy efficiency and so on. Legislation is an act of parliament, a control measure used to protect the natural environment. It enables people to be brought to court and prosecuted when they have caused damage to the environment, you can not prosecute someone unless an act is in place.P4Acts & DocumentsInformationWho Enforces It?Water Act 1989Responsible for all water-related function within a river basin including water supply, sewerage, drainage & management.Environment AgencyControl of Pollution (Amendment) Act 1989It is a criminal offence for a person who is not a registered carrier to transport controlled waste to or from any place in Great Britain.Environment AgencyEnvironmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990A system of integrated pollution control for the disposal of wastes to land, water and air.Local AuthoritiesLand Drainage Act 1991Requires that a watercourse be maintained by its owner in such a condition that the free flow of water is not impeded.Local AuthoritiesWater Resources Act 1991Aims to prevent and minimise pollution of water.Environment AgencyEnvironment Act 1995Responsible for different aspects of land as well as air quality.Environment AgencyM2AdvantagesDisadvantagesPenalties can be helpful for companies.It can often take a long time to passed in parliament.Stricter laws will encourage companies to be more environmentally friendly.Legislation requires critical evidence/data (It can take a long time to collate).Legislation gives a point of reference for prosecution.Greater expertise required in order to enforce the laws.It can help protect the natural environment.Control:Leading on from legislation, control is all about the people who police those Acts. These people enforce the acts ensuring employers obey the Acts to minimise effects on the natural environment. These people may include; Local authorities, Environment Agency as well as the Health and Safety Executive.Organisation What they stand forLALocal AuthoritiesEAEnvironment AgencyH&SHealth & Safety ExecutiveP4Documents/ActsHow it meets the ObjectivesExpense Associated with Life CycleCommunity ViewLocal AuthoritiesProvide a range of public services including environmental protection, housing & planning etc.http://www.wrexham.gov.uk/english/council/neighauth.htmSeen as the main enforcers for various legislation and waste transportation.Environment AgencyDirects and controls key environmental problems includingWater, air and land.https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/environment-agencySeen as the primary service for shielding and enhancing the surrounding environment.Health and Safety ExecutiveWatchdog for work-related health, safety & illness.http://www.hse.gov.uk/Seen to provide service more for the workers over the potential environmental impacts.M2AdvantagesDisadvantagesIt can help protect the natural environment.Takes time to make sure standards are right.HSE ensures workers are fully trained and competent for their specific duties.Local authorities can deny planning applications as materials do not meet the high demand of environment.Environment agency make sure people benefit the local environment.Difficult for different organisations to co-operate.It can reduce the impact of waste.Some people ignore certain legislation such as fly tipping.Design and Specification:P4Design and specification is essential area that should ensure that each and every project, protects/monitors both the local and global environment as every little bit adds up. Good quality building design will benefit the environment through the use of sustainable techniques. For example, retrieving locally sourced materials to reduce product miles and in turn carbon footprint, using thermal designs as well as using renewable resources. These are just a couple of many ways in which design and specification can help sustainable construction developments. There are five key areas under design and specification;Reduction in energy usageMinimisation of pollutionReduction in embedded energyEnvironmentally friendly, renewable materialsReuse of existing buildings and sites We must extend the life of our finite sources by using energy saving measures. Hydroelectric reservoirs, wind farms, geothermal power and solar power are all examples of methods in doing this that should be encouraged including through education to have a positive impact on both the population and the environment.Pollution not only affects the environment, but also our own health and well-being. Waste volumes within the UK are rising by 3% each year. Around 70% of waste produced is mineral, construction and demolition waste. To reduce this affect, techniques such as; fitting fume scrubbers, treating water, recycling and biofuels should be encouraged.The energy we use correlates to global warming, using materials with lower embedded energy such as natural timber over cement-based products with high embedded energy can help as they absorb carbon during growth and cost little to convert to usable construction materials. M2AdvantagesDisadvantagesIt reduces global warming and certain species becoming extinct.Some renewable energy sources can take up a lot of land.Less landfill will be produced.Sustainable materials and techniques can be costly.It becomes cost efficient.Can be costly.It can help protect the natural environment.It can take long periods of time.Management:P4Management is another essential method used for to protect the environment against the built-environment. Management can be split up into six sections including;Environmental impact assessmentsImproved management of construction sitesClear policies and objectivesSharing of good practiceRaising of awarenessCommunication of information Simple environmental impact assessment (EIA) demonstrates the effect an organisation may be having on the environment. It often consists of a checklist covering; water vapour discharge, heat discharge, water discharge/disposal and thermal efficiency. The site manager is instrumental in protecting the environment. They can help in preventing illegal spillages into soil/silts pumped into drainage systems by using spillage kits. Organising recycling is also important to separate different waste materials. Avoiding double handling and purchasing locally sourced materials also helps reduce the effect that the manager can provide which will have long-term benefits on the environment.Good practice should be shared and distributed across all sites and organisations for free and should not be neglected. Raising of awareness is vital, this can be through advertising and school visits etc. People are unlikely to participate in any policy if they are unaware. It can also be through site inductions and toolbox talks to make all employees aware of related considerations.M2AdvantagesDisadvantagesIt helps raise awareness and communication.It can be costly.It can help protect the natural environment.EIA takes time to complete.Helps improves people’s knowledge about environment.Difficult to make each and every employee protect the environment.Encourages other companies to be environmentally friendly.P5 – Fit for Purpose Techniques:         Fit for purpose under an environmental location, means that the specification, design and materials can withstand the weather, occupants and plant/machinery. Without a heavy maintenance budget as well as sticking to the clients brief, these factors should be carefully considered during the pre-construction phase. Materials used should achieve both British and European standard as well as specifying to a manufacturer’s recognised standard. Energy-Based Techniques: Minimising energy consumption is one of the easier techniques that can be introduced. This can be done through numerous methods such as utilizing alternative energy sources to preserve finite sources as well as using more efficient technology. Grade A appliances require less electricity and they are now becoming cheaper to purchase due to the wide range of fittings. Newly built dwellings often conduct air leakage tests to reduce energy loss. Thermal insulation can be installed and well as more efficient boilers. Alternative sources of energy alongside renewable energy are becoming increasingly popular due to such high demand. Examples include;Hydrogen fuel cellsHydroelectric schemesWave turbinesBiofuels – crops distilled to produce fuelsGeothermal energy Solar panels Wind turbinesAll these services contribute towards preserving the Earth’s finite resources.AdvantagesDisadvantagesCertain types can be harnessed both day and night times.Potential to harm and disrupt flying wildlife such as bird from turbines.Impossible to be drained unlike fossil fuels.Some methods are inconsistent with the quantities being produced.It helps minimise air pollution.Expensive materials are required for the initial build and therefore is costly.Incase of an emergency, backup power can be provided instantaneously.Maintenance is also required which comes at a cost.Will be cost-effective in the long-run.Certain types can be seen as eyesore.Material-Based Techniques: Material-based techniques are slowly developing and becoming more popular. For example:Green roofs – used for renewable, natural weatherproofing cover from certain plantsCedar timber cladding – used on the exterior of house Recycled paper products – can form cellulose loose fill insulation for loftsSheep’s wool – efficient thermal insulationDesigners are often the main driver of low embodied energy materials by convincing the client of the positive effect on the environment. For example, replacing concrete beams with high-performance timber. Any material that can be recycled on site halves the amount of embodied energy used in its manufacture. Materials such as steelwork, concrete and brickwork can saves transport costs and also reduce energy consumption. Reducing energy usage during the manufacturing phase will lower the embedded energy of the final product. Waste heat is recyclable, it can be used to produce electrical energy  which can then be recycled back into the product.  Many manufacturers are encouraging this technique more and more to gain maximum benefit from this type of energy usage on site.AdvantagesDisadvantagesCan meet numerous standards.Greater wall space will be needed for straw bales meaning less floor space.Enhances the efficiency of a building.More labour will be required during the process.Can help cut down the impact on the environment.Initially a greater cost.Materials with renewable sources are easily accessible.They are environmentally friendly.Waste-Based Techniques: Disposing of waste can be costly especially using methods such as landfill and incineration. However there are other various techniques that can be used;Teaching that waste costs the environment as wellCoordinating modular dimensions to standard lengthsPreventing damage by packaging carefullyUsing waste as fuel for energy productionManaging the correct quantity required and efficiency of raw materialsRecycling materials back into the processAdvantagesDisadvantagesEveryone can in the company can use the technique.Can often take up needed space on the site.Accurate material quantities should reduce overall cost.Some employees ignore training provided.Reduces the impact on the environment.Employees need to have the right knowledge to recycle materials correctly.Waste removal costs will be reduced.Tends to be more time consuming.Off-Site Fabrication: Off-site fabrication, a construction process conducted ‘off-site’ usually in a factory. It requires materials such as timber to be assembled to the exact dimensions before being delivered to site by lorries. However external cladding and roof tiles will have to be done on site. Off-site fabrication is becoming increasingly popular due to it;Being thermal efficientProducing low carbon emissionsUsing renewable timber productsSaving both time and energyIt is useful for both housing and offices, it produces less wastage in the factory whilst being fast and efficient due to the modules simply bolting together. It also helps prevent storing materials on site for long periods of time due to ‘just in time’ (JIT) construction as the materials are delivered only when needed. AdvantagesDisadvantagesOften produced from sustainable materials.Depending upon the size of the load, transportation may become an issue.Reduces masses of time and wastage on site.Can be costly when changes are needed.Heavily reduces the labour required on site.If a dimension was incorrect, it will be a problem to change it without affecting other surrounding pieces.The product can be made to meet accurate requirements.M3 As mentioned before, sustainable construction techniques should be fit for purpose and benefit the environment on both a local and global scale. They should also be beneficial for both the present and future of that particular building through the selection of materials and choice of production methods.Waste-Based TechniquesGood production methods as well as recycling systems results in less overall waste. This includes modern construction methods such as off-site fabrication. Energy-Based TechniquesIncrease the use of alternative energy sources and renewable energy methods to balance the high demand on the national grid as well as the environment. Material-Based TechniquesSustainably sourced renewable materials such as timber and also the low energy manufacturing of certain products.CostAdvantagesDisadvantagesRecyclingLowMinimises energy consumption.Makes sure that there is a sustainable use of unused resources.Reduces the waste that would usually go to landfill.Helps conserves the Earth’s natural resources.Cost-effective due to materials becoming cheaper in the long-run.Helps reduce carbon footprint.Can prove a hassle for some workers.May be expensive introducing new procedures.Old, locally sourced bricks may be cheaper than recycling, distant bricks.Solar PanelsInitial Cost – MediumMaintenance Cost – LowLifespan – around 25 yearsVery low maintenance needed.Produce next to no noise.Provides backup energy incase of emergency.Attachable to the vast majority of buildings.Renewable source.Can be pollutant to manufacture.Expensive materials required to produce them.Inconsistent with the quantity of power that can be produced at different times.Takes a long time to make profit.Costly to purchase and install.Off-Site FabricationCheaper than onsite constructionBetter standards of health and safety on site due to there being less workers required.More environmentally friendly.Less comfort disturbance due to less noise being produced on site.Improved accuracy of materials.Allows for unique specifications.Works out cheaper than fabricating on site.Can be costly if any measurements are inaccurate.Carbon footprint may be an issue if the site is far from the factory.Smaller pieces require assembly on site.D2:9 Red Brow LaneDaresbury ParkWarrington WA4 4BTJC HomesBilberry CloseSolihull PkwyBirmingham B37 7YNFriday 8th December 2017Dear Sir/Madam, Concerning the new housing estate that will consist of 73 homes and be situated in Poncia, Wrexham. I have recently been analysing in liaison with my team, the most efficient and effective possible construction technique that will benefit this particular site the most. I will specify as to how and why we think this is the best option. Whilst all the techniques we considered that would be useful and should still be implemented if possible (including energy-based, material-based and a few others), we concluded that off-site fabrication  would be the best possible method. We chose this method due to it evidently providing a cost-effective, sustainable finish. There will be less cost involved, less pollution as well as less  labourers required on site. Whilst there are many benefits towards the environment using this technique for the housing estate in Ponciau, there will be a considerable reduction in the overall cost of the project. There are numerous reasons for this including;Accurate fabricationSmaller chance of human errorIncreased speed (faster production and assembly in factory)Less contractors and workers required Using off-site fabrication will also result in less local pollution and in turn global pollutions. During manufacturing processes, materials can be recycled and cleaned to a good standard unlike on site. If we did go ahead with this method there would be a huge reduction in waste produced on site, and therefore less potential chemical run-off which could harm the nearby environment including the biodiversity of the neighbouring pond. There will also be a reduction in comfort disturbance due to the technique minimising noise and with it pollution. On top of noise pollution, air, traffic and dust pollution with also be reduced. Based on previous projects who have used this technique, statistics have proven that site safety has been improved significantly. This is mainly due to less need of contractors/labourers on site at a given time. The vast majority of work to produce these dwelling will take place in a controlled environment. The houses will arrive ready to be assembled with ease using cranes. This also means less tools and machinery required and therefore less chance of an accident. In comparison to the traditional construction method, we found that the overall build time was greatly reduced. We found that there is precise cutting machinery off-site, as well as quicker. This may prove advantageous when producing in large quantities. Time constraints and deadlines shouldn’t be a problem due to factories being able to operate throughout the nights and not have to worry about running out of daylight and noise level. The weather will also not be as much of an issue causing no hold-backs due most of the production being indoors. All these factors can help avoid fines and penalties. All of these factors combined will help develop our company’s, sustainable, environmentally friendly image whilst helping hugely on the financial side for both the present and the future. I hope this has been useful for you and I look forward to hearing from you. If you have any further information required, I will happily respond as soon as I can on either;07168687435 – JC Homes, [email protected] sincerelyMatthew Percy Appendices:Google ImagesEdexcel Btec Level 3 Constructuction & The Built Environmenthttp://adlib.everysite.co.uk/adlib/defra/content.aspx?id=19405https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Homehttp://slideplayer.com/slide/6179788/Bibliography:https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1989/15/contentshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_Act_1989https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtTBf-2XO4ghttps://www.gov.uk/guidance/environmental-impact-assessmenthttps://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/environment-agencyhttp://www.rics.org/uk/tag/design-specification/http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2017/571/contents/madehttps://www.breeam.com/index.jsp?id=1495http://www.hse.gov.uk/

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