ABSTRACT the range of 7 to 9.5. Above this,

ABSTRACT

PH or hydrogen ion concentration is used to
determine whether a substance is leaning towards acidity or alkalinity. Since
it is important that your drilling mud is alkaline, it is necessary to
determine the PH of your mud before sending it downhole. This is because
having a high concentration of hydrogen ions in our drilling mud, poses serious
problems. The viscosity of bentonite will be least affected if the PH is within the range of 7 to 9.5. Above this, the
viscosity will increase and may give viscosities that are too high for good
drilling properties. Also, for reducing shale problems, a PH of 8.5 to 9.5 gives the best hole stability and
control over mud properties. Corrosion is also another disadvantage of low PH. The corrosion of metal is increased if it comes
into contact with an acidic fluid. So, a higher PH
would be desirable to protect pipe and casing from corrosion.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE                                                                     PAGE

Abstract    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      2

Table of content –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      3

Introduction      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      4

Experiment
apparatus/diagram     –      –      –      –      –      5

Colorimetric Method   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      7

o   Procedure:
Sample 1

o   Results: Sample
1

o   Procedure:
Sample 2

o   Results: Sample
2

o   Precaution

Electrometric Method  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      8

o   Procedure:
Sample 1

o   Results: Sample
1

o   Procedure:
Sample 2

o   Results: Sample
2

o   Precaution

Discussion –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      10

Conclusion –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      10

References –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –     
11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

        The term PH is used to express the concentration of hydrogen
ions in aqueous solution. PH is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the
hydrogen ion concentration in gram moles per litre. In a neutral solution (e.g.
pure water), the hydrogen ion (H+) and the hydroxyl ion (OH-) concentrations
are equal, and each is equal to 10-7. A PH
below 7 shows an increase in acidity, while an increase in PH
above 7 shows an increase in alkalinity. The PH
can be determined either by using the colorimetric method
or the electrometric method.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS/DIAGRAM.

  Colorimetric
Method

1.   
PH
paper                                               

2.   
Mixer

3.   
Spatula

4.   
Measuring
cylinder

5.   
Weighing
scale

 

Electrometric method

1.   
PH
meter

2.   
Mixer

3.   
Spatula

4.   
Measuring
cylinder

5.   
Weighing
scale

 

 

Fig 6.1 showing a PH meter

Fig 6.2 showing a mixer

 

Fig 6.3 showing PH paper

 

Fig 6.4 showing a weighing
balance

USING THE COLORIMETRIC
METHOD (PH PAPER)

        The PH paper is impregnated with dyes that exhibit
different colours when exposed to solutions of varying PH. High concentration of salt in the sample may
alter the colour developed by the dyes and cause the estimate of PH to be unreliable.

 

PROCEDURE: SAMPLE 1

1.   
In
order to prepare my Sample 1, I measured and mixed 350 ml of water (H2O) and 25g
of Bentonite.

2.   
I
then tore off a short strip of litmus paper and placed it on the surface of my
Sample 1.

3.   
After
the colour of the test paper had stabilized, I matched the changed colour
against the standard colour chart.

 

RESULTS: SAMPLE 1

        Value
of PH
as read using the standard colour chart

               =
9 PH

 

PROCEDURE: SAMPLE 2

1.   
 In order to prepare my Sample 2, I measured
and mixed 350 ml of water (H2O), 25g of Bentonite and 5g of CaCl.

2.   
I
then tore off a short strip of litmus paper and placed it on the surface of my
Sample 1.

3.   
After
the colour of the test paper had stabilized, I matched the changed colour
against the standard colour chart.

 

RESULTS:
SAMPLE 2

      Value
of PH
as read using the standard colour chart

             
= 7 PH

PRECAUTION

1.   
I
avoided sticking the PH
paper into the sample.

2.   
I
made sure the colour of the test paper was stabilized before matching it
against the standard colour chart.

 

 

 

 

USING
THE ELECTROMETRIC METHOD (PH METER)

              
The PH meter is an instrument that determines the PH of an aqueous solution by measuring the
electropotential generated between a special glass electrode and a reference
electrode. The electromotive force (EMF) generated across the specially
formulated glass membrane has been found empirically to be almost linear with PH of the solution.

              The meter has a range of 0 to 14 PH unit, with accuracy and repeatability = 0.1 PH unit.

 

PROCEDURE: SAMPLE 1

1.   
In
order to prepare my Sample 1, I measured and mixed 350 ml of water (H2O) and 25g
of Bentonite.

2.   
 I poured the mixture into a sample cup and
turned the PH meter on.

3.   
I
pushed the PH/mv key until the annunciators indicated the
desired mode.

4.   
I
set the temperature compensation manually by adjusting the temperature over a
range of 0?to 100?C.

5.   
I
rinsed the probe with distilled water and immersed the probe into the mixture.

6.   
I
left the probe in the mixture for 60 to 90 seconds until the reading stabilized
and then took my reading.

 

RESULTS: SAMPLE 1

Value of PH as read using the PH
meter

= 9.2 PH

      
Temperature of the sample 1 tested

            
= 26.4°C

 

PROCEDURE: SAMPLE 2

1.   
 In order to prepare my Sample 2, I measured
and mixed 350 ml of water (H2O), 25g of Bentonite and 5g of CaCl.

2.   
I
poured the mixture into a sample cup and turned the PH meter on.

3.   
I
pushed the PH/mv key until the annunciators indicated the
desired mode.

4.   
I
set the temperature compensation manually by adjusting the temperature over a range
of 0?to 100?C.

5.   
I
rinsed the probe with distilled water and immersed the probe into the mixture.

6.   
I
left the probe in the mixture for 60 to 90 seconds until the reading stabilized
and then took my reading.

 

RESULTS:
SAMPLE 2

      Value
of PH
as read using the PH meter

             
= 7.3 PH

     
Temperature of the sample 2 tested

             
= 26.7°C

 

 

 

PRECAUTION

1.   
I
never let the probe tip become dry. I always kept the glass bulb of the probe
moist for fast response.

2.   
After
using the electrode, I covered it with the rubber cap.

 

 

 

DISCUSSION

             
In my results for Sample 1, it shows that the PH will have no significant effect on the viscosity
of the mud since the PH
is within the range of 7 – 9.5 PH.
Also, the PH of Sample 1 will provide good hole stability and
mud property control when used to minimize shale problems.

             The
addition of salt (CaCl) to the mud (Sample 2), which is a contaminant that can
be encountered by the mud during drilling operations, affected the mud by
causing a decrease in the PH
value. If the value had been further decreased, it could corrode the casing and
drilling equipment when used.

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

             
Determining our PH
is very important because it helps us to prevent or minimize corrosion and to
control other mud properties like viscosity. The optimum control of some mud
systems is based on PH,
as is the detection and treatment of certain mud contaminants. Other reasons
for PH control include maintenance of lime-treated muds,
effective use of thinners, and corrosion mitigation.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

–     
Drilling
Mud Laboratory Manual.

–     
Pet
315 Lecture Note.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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