ABSTRACT: is connected to a Central Monitoring Station (CMS)

 

ABSTRACT: The advanced improvement in wireless sensor networks can be used in supervising
various parameters in agriculture. Due to uneven natural distribution of rain
water it is very difficult for farmers to monitor and control the distribution
of water to agriculture field in the whole farm or as per the requirement of
the crop. There is no ideal irrigation method for all weather conditions, soil
structure and variety of crops cultures. Farmers suffer large financial losses
because of wrong prediction of weather and incorrect irrigation methods. In
this context, with the evolution of miniaturized sensor devices coupled with
wireless technologies, it is possible remotely monitor parameters such as
moisture, temperature and humidity. In this paper it is proposed to design,
develop and implement a wireless sensor network connected to a central node
using ZigBee, which in turn is connected to a Central Monitoring Station (CMS)
through General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) or Global System for Mobile (GSM)
technologies. The system also obtains Global Positioning System (GPS)
parameters related to the field and sends them to a central monitoring station.
This system is expected to help farmers in evaluating soil conditions and act
accordingly.

 

                        
 KEYWORDS:Precision,agriculture,Wirelesssensor networks,  ZigBee.

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I.INTRODUCTION

 

In of soil can correctly guide agricultural
production and improve crop yield. It also can provide scientific basis for
high-precision monitoring and calculating for farmland drought and flood area. Many
problems exists due to traditional wired communication. It has expansive application
prospects in the water of soil environmental monitoring field . The age of the
Internet of things comes; wireless sensor networks become the core of
networking. In order to achieve greater things on the technical requirements of
the Internet of things, we adopt the technology of wireless sensor network
based on Zigbee, GPRS and Web Services technology designing a set of cheap
cost, low

 

power requirements, flexible automatic
networking temperature humidity monitoring system of soil. The system is made of
wireless sensor network nodes and network management platform. Zigbee node  is respectively transmits the field of soil
environmental monitoring in the water of soil , real time monitoring the
temperature and humidity acquisition of the temperature and humidity data to
the Zigbee stations of gateways node.One of the most
important sensor for PA field measurement is soil moisture sensor. Soil
moisture is the water that held in the spaces between soil particles. Soil
moisture is the key parameter to determine when to irrigate and amount of water
to supply.   

                     Block diagram of sensor node Precision irrigation involves the accurate and precise
application of water to meet the specific requirements of individual plants or
crops and minimize adverse environmental impact. It is also estimated
that 40% of the water used for agriculture in
developing countries is lost, either by evaporation, spills, or absorption by
the deeper layers of the soil, beyond thereach of plants’ roots..Commonly accepted definition
of Precision irrigation is sustainable management of water resources which
involve esapplication of water to the crop at the right time, righ amount,
right place and right manner thereby helping to manage the field variability of
water in turn increasing thecrop productivity and water use efficiency along
with reduction in energy cost on irrigation. Hedley and Yule suggested water
savings of around 25% are possible through improvements in application
efficiency obtained by spatially varied irrigation applications IV.
MOTIVATION         Reducing the energy utilization has now become
a crucial objective for many people. Transparency in the power consumption and
regular feedback on electricity utilization must be provided to consumers so
that they can make some changes in the power consumption pattern to save
electricity. In today’s generation the electricity bill that we get does not
have our daily consumption details as well as the reason that because of which
appliance your electricity bill is high from the previous one. It only has the
graph of monthly electricity consumption and not the day to day electricity
consumption. For this purpose smart electricity meters that can be remotely
monitored in furnishing the users with the feedback regarding the electricity
usage and controlled are used. In real-time, this system helps in identifying
the biggest electricity consumption and helps consumers in decreasing their
electricity utilization. It also helps you reduce your daily electricity
consumption by seeing the graph of day to day consumption of different
appliances and you can come to know about that appliance which has the largest
energy consumption at the end of the day. We are also going to implements the
concept of automatic switching of light when there is no one in the room to
reduce the electricity consumption in our project.                   
V. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 1)
Pest Management Pest detection and control is at least as old as agriculture
because there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests. A number of
capabilities so far expected for pest control in agriculture using wireless
sensor network. Agriculture is considered as the oldest occupational activity,
after that pest management and control is then born. Farm people usually
want  to keep their crops free from
destructive pests as possible for these creatures may bruise their yields
resulting to a poor harvest and poor food quality. There are many advantageous
techniques proposed for pest control in agriculture using wireless sensor
network. One of these techniques may include pest identification through
physical characteristic detection. The system has a gathered data about the
physical attributes of pests, when such pest is detected, the system can easily
know what type of pest it is and immediately suggest possible ways on how to
manage the farm situation.2)
Agricultural Water Management Water consumption around the globe has increased
seven times in the course of the last century. The level of ground water is
declining. It is know that 1.1 billion people across the world live without
satisfactory access to clean water. This results in the death of roughly 2
million people per year due to lack of water related diseases. Political
stability itself is at risk, as experts predict that upcoming conflicts are
most probably about water resources. As water supplies became scarcer, there is
the need to manage water consumption. Water consumption has increased 11
dramatically in the past decade.3.
Water is a precious resource, it is also considered as a source of conflict
among nations. World water commission reports estimates that water us-age will
increase by one half over the next 25 years. The application of wireless sensor
network (WSN) for a water irrigation control monitoring is composed of a number
of sensor nodes with a networking capability that can be deployed for an ad hoc
and continuous monitoring purpose. The guideline involvedl such as the water
level and motor movement of the gate controlling the flow of water will be
measured in the real time by the sensors that send the data to the base station
or control/ monitoring room..  VI.OBJECTIVEForests are
important sources for biodiversity and ecological balance. They provide many
benefits and it is the main functions for water and soil conservation, genetic
resources for plant and animal, and also source of wood supply and other forest
goods. However, recently the green forest environment has been interrupted by
non ethical activities such as illegal logging and also country development
activities that decrease the benefits of the forest contribution. Thus, in
order to ensure long term forest autonomy, it is important to implement a
monitoring system that is responsible in providing effective monitoring for
forest environment 1. Several
studies have highlighted forest monitoring system 2. Rather than
using disposable batteries as power supplies,3 use node
solar power system and lithium-ion battery for power continuity and introduce
the regulator control of the system method and design of software system
briefly. Their system can improve the lithium-ion battery life to ensure
business continuity of system. But for the implementation of solar power
system, it still needs to redo the experimentation on the operation of charge
and discharge control to make sure the control and estimation of battery power
accuracy fulfil the system requirements. Forest monitoring is not limited to
environmental issues only, but it also includes fire monitoring and detection
in forests4 We know that
fire forest can lead to environmental degradable. Therefore, based on this
awareness, 5 develop a
framework on forest monitoring and fire detection which discovers sensor nodes
deployment approach, an architecture for fire detection sensor network,
interaction protocol of intra-cluster and inter-cluster. They develop a
simulator to perform simulation tests in order to examine the proposed system
protocols and components. In the end, their system manages to provide effective
and efficient operation that conserve less energy without disturbing the rapid
reaction capability. In other studies, 6 proposed a fire detection system that uses
a wireless local area network (WLAN) together with sensor node technology. The
system set in wireless mesh network uses multi-sensor nodes with IP-based
cameras to detect the presence of fire. When a fire is discovered by the nodes,
the sensor alarm propagate via wireless network to a central server. The
closest wireless camera to the multisensor is selected by the central server,
and it transmits a message to it to retrieve real-time figures from the area.
The most important benefits from this study is that it integrate sensory data
with VII.RESUL &
DISCUSSION 1.  In monitoring reports, presentation of
results should emphasize data summaries, summary statistics, charts, graphs,
and illustrative or exploratory analyses. 
In-depth trend analyses, hypothesis testing, and power analyses can also
be included if the statistical methods used are specified in a peer-reviewed
protocol, or have undergone peer review in previous reports.  In general, in-depth, complex statistical
analyses that have not been previously peer reviewed should be reserved for
analytical reports.  However, un-reviewed
analyses can be included in monitoring reports provided appropriate external
peer review occurs before the report is finalized, and provided the timeliness
of the report is not compromised.2.  Monitoring reports should interpret the most
recent data in view of results from previous years, and should discuss how the
results address the monitoring questions. 
The organization of these sections should clearly highlight any
conclusions regarding resource condition or ecosystem integrity, particularly
those pertaining to declines or threats. VIII.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThis IJIREICE report on “Wireless sensor based system for
field monitoring and plant protection” has been possible only because of kind
co-operation lent by our teacher and project guide Mrs. Sonal Barve 
which
this would not have been possible. We would also like to thank our
parents, who have provided us with all resources and the support needed to gain
knowledge and complete this project. At
last I would like to thank Dr. B.K. Mishra (Principal), Dr.Kamal Shah(Dean
R&D), Dr.Sandhya Save (Electronics department, HOD) for their guidance and
support. At last I would like to thank Dr. B.K. Mishra (Principal), Dr. Kamal
Shah(Dean R&D), Dr. Sandhya Save (Electronics department, HOD) for their
guidance and support.  IX. Conclusion 

This paper presents a crop
monitoring system based on wireless sensor network. IoT has important
significance in promoting agricultural information. ARM 7 processor is
integrating with the sensors (temperature, humidity and water level) used for
agriculture monitoring and crops production. Depending upon the threshold value
motor is controlled automatically. The monitored crop details are uploaded to
the cloud via the IoT gateway. Hence the farmers can easily to access and
control the agricultural production, whereas saving the input materials,
improving efficiency, productivity and profitability in farming production
system.

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