Biotechnology is refered as a potential source of
crop productivity improvement in the agriculture field. The other topics it
cover in soil sciences is stabilization of soil, enhancement of N- fixation,
bioremediation, biocontrol, and many other new microbial products for the soil
Soil science and biotechnology are interactive in a
way that interdisciplinary studies are inevitable. Recent studies of
biotechnology give us knowledge about microbes function and their nature and
make us understand that microbes can be used in beneficial ways in soil.
Genetically modified rhizobia are of great interest for
creating strains for effective Nitrogen fixers with leguminous crops. Different
companies has conducted successful field experiments.
Mycorrhizal fungi that are present in nature promote
P-uptake by crops. Mycorrhizal fungi have potential to use as an inoculant. The
limitations are difficulty to produce large amounts of the organism which are
enough to use as an inoculant on a field scale.
Engineered Microbes (GEMS) :
Genetical modification in the composition of
bacterial cell has now become a routinely practice in laboratory procedure Manipulation
in the genetic makeup to produce desired changes in function or growth is
generally easier for bacteria than for crop plants. Therefore. the products of
GEMS may have a large impact sooner than genetically engineered plant products.
Yet, the most immediate applications
are likely to be in medicine. For example. valuable
drugs can be produced by GEMS
carrying mammalian genes.
Researchers are trying to create microbial
insecticides, fungicides and
nematicides. In one approach the gene for a pest
toxins is taken from natural source and transfer to common bacterial growth
inhibitors of the root. The advantages include
that the microbe works as chemical synthesis.